Human Resources and Skill Development
  • Arundhathi Baburaj
  • 04-11-2019

This blog is an excerpt from my own project report, carried out as part of my MBA studies' curriculum. 

Project Title: Effectiveness of Employee Training and Development 

Company: L&T Constructions, Chennai, India

Timeline: May 2015 to July 2015

Companies have now started to use employee training to meet their sustainability goals. This implies an increase emphasis on performance analysis and learning for business development. 


1. The most preferred method of training - On the job training 

2. A T&D program is successful when it meets all the stated objectives with competent faculties & useful resources that make the learning easy

3. The T&D program helps in the faster growth rate of employees in the organization by improving the productivity level and strengthening areas where an employee lags.

4. The success of a T&D program depends on the amount of transfer of training - i.e. how far the employee could brings  the learning ( from the T&D program) back into the job.

5. The motivation obtained from the T&D program impacts the productivity and thus the success of a T&D program.

6. Job commitments and pressure from superiors are a major factor in attending a T&D program.

7. The common human psychology of human beings preferring / inclining towards newer and innovative things and events are applicable to the T&D program as well - factors like new innovations and technology and the opportunity to interact with other participants (which are different from the routinely schedule) facilities the employees' mindset to attend the T&D program.

8. Payoff and ROI for the T&D program is not calculated, although there is always a training budget



@ Proper scheduling of the job & targets such that employees can find time to attend the training programs without constraints.

@ Innovations, technology and creativity in the T&D program can be made for better results and employee satisfaction.

@ Calculation of ROI on the T&D program can be done in order to measure the monetary outcomes or the success on the monetary basis.

@ T&D program evaluation methods can be made more efficient with improved methodologies - threats to validity, appropriate pretest and post test evaluation, time series etc



  • Conduct a formative evaluation and summative evaluation of T&D program with pilot testing
  • Conduct utility analysis as part of the cost benefit analysis of the T&D program



  • Increased use of technology for training delivery - the reasons being cost effectiveness & better productivity.
    • Learning while sleeping, tele immersionvirtual retinal display, digital avatar, etc.
  • Increased demand for training for virtual work arrangements - Virtual work arrangements include virtual teams as well telecommunication, work that is conducted in a remote location (distant from central offices) where the employee has limited contact with peers but is able to communicate electronically.
  • Increased emphasis on speed in design, focus,in content and use of multiple delivery methods 
    • Rapid Instructional Design (RID) is a group of techniques that allows training to be built more quickly. RID modifies the training design model that consists of needs analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
  • Increased emphasis on capturing and sharing intellectual capital
    • Concerned about loss of valuable knowledge when their baby boomer employees are retiring will continue to seek ways to turn emploees' knowledge (human capital) into a shared asset.
  • Increased use of true performance support 
    • Embedded Learning is the learning that occurs on the job as needed; involving collaboration & non learning technologies such as instant messaging, and it is integrated with knowledge management
  • Increased use of training partnerships and outsourcing training 
    • Application Service Provider (ASP)



# Threats to Validity - the factors that leas an evaluator to question the following - (1) the believability of the study results; or (2) the extent to which the evaluation results are generalizable to other trainee groups and situations


# Time Series - An evaluation design wherein training outcomes are collected at periodic intervals (before and after training)


# Formative Evaluation - Evaluation of training that takes place during program design and development


# Summative Evaluation - Evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participation in the T&D program.


# Pilot Testing - Refers to the process of previewing the training program with potential trainees and managers or with other customers


# Tele Immersion - A technology to be implemented with Internet2 that will enable users in different geographic locations to come together in a simulated environment to interact. Users will feel like they are actually looking, talking and meeting with each other face to face in the same room


# Virtual Retinal Display - A display technology that draws a raster display (like television) directly onto the eye retina. The user sees what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front of them.